Physics and probability: essays in honor of E.T.Jaynes by W. T. Grandy Jr, P. W. Milonni
By W. T. Grandy Jr, P. W. Milonni
The pioneering paintings of Edwin T. Jaynes within the box of statistical physics, quantum optics, and likelihood thought has had an important and lasting influence at the learn of many actual difficulties, starting from basic theoretical questions via to useful purposes resembling optical photo recovery. Physics and chance is a suite of papers in those parts by way of a few of his many colleagues and previous scholars, dependent mostly on lectures given at a symposium celebrating Jaynes' contributions, at the get together of his 70th birthday and retirement as Wayman Crow Professor of Physics at Washington collage. the gathering comprises a number of authoritative overviews of present study on greatest entropy and quantum optics, the place Jaynes' paintings has been relatively influential, in addition to studies on a few comparable issues. within the concluding paper, Jaynes appears to be like again over his occupation, and offers encouragement and sound suggestion to younger scientists. All these engaged in examine on any of the subjects mentioned in those papers will locate this an invaluable and interesting assortment, and a becoming tribute to a superb and leading edge scientist.
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Thermophys. 21, 1463 (2000) 14. Y. Sato, K. Kobayashi, T. Ejima, J. Jpn. Inst. Metals 43, 97 (1979) 15. K. Mukai, Z. Yuan, Mater. Trans. JIM 41, 323 (2000) 16. T. -F. Paradis, S. Yoda, Space Utiliz. Res. 1 Introduction Marangoni ﬂow plays an important role in the heat and mass transport for highly value-added high-temperature processes, such as crystal growth, welding, casting, and electron beam melting. For silicon single crystal growth, the eﬀect of the oscillatory Marangoni ﬂow on the introduction of growth striation was discussed by Chen and Wilcox for the ﬁrst time in 1972 .
Electric balabce (for small sinker) 2. Electric balance (for large sinker) 3. Moving unit (Balance) 4. Pt-Rh ( or Ta) wire 5. Furnace 6. Tungsten weight 7. small sinker 8. Large sinker 9. Crucible 10. Zirconium case (BN) 11. Alumina tube 12. Moving unit (Tube) 13. Thermocouple 8 9 10 11 13 12 Fig. 13. 2 Pycnometric Method This method is based on the measurement of the mass with ﬁxed volume by using a pycnometer with known capacity. The pycnometer is made of refractory materials such as ceramics, boron nitride, or graphite and machined to desired shape and dimension.
Therefore, calibration method is usually used for determining the apparatus constant regarding to the dimensions at various angular velocities by means of standard viscosity liquids such as silicon oils with various viscosities. An example for the outer crucible rotating viscometer is shown in Fig. 11 . 3 Density Measurements As density is the most fundamental property for all the matter in any state and temperature, many methods were propounded in the long history. Typical methods for high temperature melts  are an Archimedean method, a pycnometric method, a manometric method, a maximum bubble pressure method, a sessile drop method, a levitation method, a dilatometric method, a ﬂoat method, a γ-ray transmission method, etc.