Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution by John F. Eisenberg (auth.), John L. Gittleman (eds.)
By John F. Eisenberg (auth.), John L. Gittleman (eds.)
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Extra resources for Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution
Morton's (1977, 1982) motivation-structural hypothesis lumps fearful and appeasing states in the sender of a signal and therefore mixes different motivations. This is well substantiated by friendly close-range and appeasing vocalizations by fissipeds (G. Peters 1984a, 1984b; Sieber 1984) and by other mammals (August and Anderson 1987) that do not fit the structural scheme of this model. Motivation-structural rules must incorporate all three basic dimensions (frequency, amplitude, time) in relation to the individual's motivation.
The Motivational Basis of Vocalization by Carnivores The concept of motivation is still rather vague in ethology (Halliday 1983a), and therefore studies discussing the motivational basis of vocalization differ in 22 Gustav Peters and W. Chris W ozencraft theoretical approaches. General motivational concepts were proposed by Andrew (1963), Tembrock (1971, 1975, 1977), Kiley (1972), Cohen and Fox (1976), and Morton (1977, 1982); and Scherer (1985) integrated mammalian models in a review of vocal affect signaling in humans.
Chris Wozencraft Encoding and Decoding In studying functional aspects of communication, one must consider the motivation of the sender and the effect of its signal on the addressee(s) and possible other receivers. W. J. Smith (1977) introduced the concepts of the message and the meaning of a signal to differentiate between these two sides from which one can view a communicatory act. Encoding of the message and the decoding of the meaning of a signal are central to an understanding of animal communication processes and the phylogeny of communication signals (see Green and Marler 1979; Slater 1983; Wiley 1983); however, encoding and decoding have not been well studied in carnivores.