Butterflies: ecology and evolution taking flight by Carol L. Boggs, Ward B. Watt, Paul R. Ehrlich

By Carol L. Boggs, Ward B. Watt, Paul R. Ehrlich

В этой книги лучшие мировые эксперты обобщили современные знания о бабочках, чтобы показать, как исследование тих удивительных созданий может привести к более глубокому пониманию экологических и эволюционных процессов в целом. 26 глав структурированы по широким функциональным областям, характеризуя использование бабочек в исследованиях поведения, экологии, генетики, эволюции, систематики и охраны природы. Учитывая современный кризис биоразнообразия, эта книга показывает, как результаты, полученные в исследованиях бабочек, помогают понять быстрые и сильные изменения современного мира. В частности, наблюдаются сдвиги географического распространения некоторых видов бабочек в ответ на глобальное потепление, что является ранним свидетельством климатических изменений.
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Extra resources for Butterflies: ecology and evolution taking flight

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On the other hand codec mode changes within a fixed channel mode will be communicated in band. Studies undertaken thus far have indicated that channel mode changes, implemented via intra-cell handovers, are likely to occur a few times per minute [13]. Such changes will be symmetric in the sense that both directions of speech transport always use the same channel mode. On the other hand it is envisaged that changes of codec mode will occur much more frequently (up to a few times per second), and that asymmetry of 40 Steve Aftelak choice is allowed, so that different codec modes can be chosen for uplink and downlink depending on the prevailing channel conditions in the two directions.

E. non-TFO) operation is achieved by the detection of the loss of TFO speech frame synchronisation in the downlink TRAU receiver. e. the upper 6 or 7 bit values). Thus, as soon as the receiver detects a need to revert back to normal operation, it can immediately use the received samples as input to the speech encoder in place of forwarding the received TFO speech frames on the downlink. It is envisaged that the speech encoder will operate continuously during TFO operation to allow this. 3 TFO Performance Evaluation SMG11 undertook some limited subjective tests, based on simulations of TFO operation, which show the level of improvement expected.

Firstly a search is undertaken to find the optimal time lag This is initiated with an open-loop pitch search. This simplifies the task by confining the subsequent closed-loop pitch search to a small number of points around the open-loop estimated value. The appropriately timeshifted (using ) and amplitude-scaled (using ) block of previous excitation samples is taken to be the current excitation component associated with the pitch, thereby eliminating the pitch synthesis filter. The excitation signal at the input to the short term linear prediction synthesis filter is formed by adding the excitation vector produced by the adaptive codebook approach to an appropriate vector chosen from the fixed codebook.

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