Breakdown Phenomena in Semiconductors and Semiconductor by Michael Levinshtein

By Michael Levinshtein

Effect ionization, avalanche and breakdown phenomena shape the root of many very fascinating and critical semiconductor units, corresponding to avalanche photodiodes, avalanche transistors, suppressors, polishing diodes (diodes with not on time breakdown), in addition to IMPATT and TRAPATT diodes. so that it will supply maximal pace and tool, many semiconductor units needs to function lower than or very as regards to breakdown stipulations. accordingly, an acquaintance with breakdown phenomena is key for scientists or engineers facing semiconductor units. the purpose of this e-book is to summarize the most experimental effects on avalanche and breakdown phenomena in semiconductors and semiconductor units and to investigate their beneficial properties from a unified viewpoint. awareness is targeted at the phenomenology of avalanche multiplication and many of the types of breakdown phenomena and their qualitative research.

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Not all carriers generated by light contribute to the photocurrent, as some of them recombine on the surface of the photodiode and in the quasi-neutral regions adjoining the space-charge region. Eq. 15) nevertheless gives a correct estimate for the quantum efficiency of an optimally designed photodiode. 15), the quantum efficiency is high enough if aphW 2 1. 4). On the other hand, W should not be too small. Any decrease in W will result in an increase in the barrier capacity C, which in turn will increase the time constant R1C.

A I c 0 t b I 0 t C 0 f Fig. 3 Qualitative picture of microplasma current pulses at different values of the bias Vo: v03 > V02 > Val. 2 - 2 V. The amplitude of the microplasma pulses depends very weakly on the bias Vo, but as the bias increases, the duration of the “switched-on” state increases monotonically and that of the “switched-off’’state decreases. - - At a given bias V O<~VO< VO,(see Fig. 4), one can observe current pulses of practically constant amplitude which lie in the range 10 to 200 pA depending on the junction.

Vol is the bias at which the first microplasma appears, and it is switched on permanently at Vo = V04. The current-voltage characteristic of a switched-on microplasma is linear. high field. The turn-off probability is merely the probability of such random current fluctuation] which reduces the number of carriers entering the microplasma channel to a value a t which stable breakdown is no longer possible [49; 501. 4). The characteristic value of the switched-on microplasma resistance R,, lies in a range from several dozen Ohms for relatively low voltage junctions to several kilo-Ohms for p n junctions with a high breakdown voltage.

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