Brain-Computer Interfaces: An international assessment of by Theodore W. Berger, John K. Chapin, Greg A. Gerhardt, Dennis

By Theodore W. Berger, John K. Chapin, Greg A. Gerhardt, Dennis J. McFarland, Jose C. Principe, Walid V. Soussou, Dawn M. Taylor, Patrick A. Tresco

Brain-computer interface (BCI) study bargains with developing communique pathways among the mind and exterior units the place such pathways don't differently exist. during the international, such learn is strangely huge and increasing. BCI learn is swiftly forthcoming a degree of first-generation clinical perform to be used by way of participants whose neural pathways are broken, and use of BCI applied sciences is accelerating quickly in nonmedical arenas of trade besides, quite within the gaming, automobile, and robotics industries. The applied sciences used for BCI reasons are state-of-the-art, permitting, and synergistic in lots of interrelated arenas, together with sign processing, neural tissue engineering, multiscale modeling, platforms integration, and robotics. This WTEC research accrued details on around the world prestige and traits in BCI study to disseminate to govt decisionmakers and the study group. The research reviewed and assessed the state-of-the-art in sensor expertise, the biotic-abiotic interface and biocompatibility, information research and modeling, implementation, structures engineering, sensible electric stimulation, noninvasive communique structures, and cognitive and emotional neuroprostheses in educational study and undefined. The research additionally in comparison the fantastically assorted foci, diversity, and funding degrees of BCI learn courses within the usa, Canada, China, Europe, and Japan.

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4. 2 Speakers and Presentations at the North American Baseline Workshop Name Affiliation Presentation Title Theodore Berger University of Southern California WTEC International Assessment of BrainComputer Interface Research Gary Birch Neil Squire Foundation Asynchronous BCI and Brain Interface Research Dan Moran Washington University Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Control of Brain-Computer Interfaces Dennis McFarland Wadsworth Center Commentary: Summary of EEG/ECoG Daryl Kipke Implantable Microscale Neural Interface Devices for BCI Systems University of Michigan Richard Normann University of Utah Applications of Penetrating Microelectrodes in Nervous System Disorders William Shain Wadsworth Center Understanding Biological Responses to Inserted Neural Prosthetic Devices: Building a Foundation to Promote Improved Tissue Integration and Device Performance Patrick Tresco University of Utah Commentary Greg Gerhardt University of Kentucky Commentary Krishna Shenoy Stanford University Decoding Movement Plans for Use in Neural Prosthetic Devices Andy Schwartz University of Pittsburgh Useful Signals from Motor Cortex Dawn Taylor Case Western Reserve University Commentary José Principe University of Florida Commentary John Donoghue Brown University Neuromotor Prosthesis/Direct Brain Interfaces David Putz Ad-Tech Medical Instrument The Path from Research & Development to Corporation FDA Approval to Commercialization John Chapin SUNY Downstate Medical Center Commentary Greg Gerhardt University of Kentucky Commentary 4 1.

2006). , 2006; Burmeister and Gerhardt, 2006). , 1989; Burmeister and Gerhardt, 2006; Cheung, 2007). In addition, in part we have discussed some of this technology in a recent chapter (Burmeister and Gerhardt, 2006). 10 2. Sensor Technology Wire-Type Microelectrodes Currently, the workhorse electrode for recording multiple single-unit action potential activity from the brains of animals is through the use of what are termed microwire array bundles. These generally involve the use of 13–200 μm-diameter, Teflon®-coated tungsten (W) or iridium (Ir) wires arranged in bundles of 16–64 or even hundreds of wires.

2000). , 2001). , 2006). These also represent the major microelectrode manufacturing capabilities in the European Union, which strongly competes with the technologies being developed in the United States and Asia. 3 shows representative designs. Novel devices can be integrated onto the sensors using silicon-based microelectrodes. , 1997; Burmeister and Gerhardt, 2006). , 2004; Burmeister and Gerhardt, 2006). 14 2. 3. (Top-left) examples of silicon-based ACREO microelectrode arrays; (top-right) micrograph of an individual ACREO microelectrode recording site; (bottom) schematic of the ACREO microelectrode arrays (Photographs courtesy of ACREO AB, Sweden).

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