Bioterror and Biowarfare: A Beginner’s Guide (Oneworld by Malcolm Dando

By Malcolm Dando

During this crucial advisor to the earlier, current and way forward for bio-warfare, overseas safeguard professional Malcolm Dando attracts a wealth of ecperience and study to discover the reality concerning the alarming failure of overseas neighborhood to put potent curbs at the use of this lethal weapon.

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Extra resources for Bioterror and Biowarfare: A Beginner’s Guide (Oneworld Beginner’s Guides)

Sample text

Five types of botulinum toxin, A, B, C, D and E, were available. Only A and B were studied and A was chosen as the more powerful and less familiar in Europe and Asia. The favoured strain of Brucella suis (the cause of brucellosis) was a highly virulent type termed S1. It was shown that animals were infected via the respiratory route and that the agent remained stable when discharged in a cloud. At the time the war in Europe ended, there was considerable discussion in the United States about attacking Japanese rice production using plant growth regulators and defoliants.

D. Woods (later Professor of Chemical Microbiology at Oxford), Fildes began work on an apparatus that produced bacterial clouds in which experimental animals could be infected and the required doses determined. It was also shown that a bursting munition could be used to create the required aerosol. For safety reasons, tests were then moved to Gruinard Island, off the Scottish coast. On Gruinard in 1942 a combined team from the biology department and the chemical defence group at Porton worked with the military to test anthrax as a real weapon.

The account confirms that the stockpile of five million anthrax-laced cattle cakes developed to provide a retaliatory capability during the war was largely destroyed immediately after the war by autoclaving and burning. A few boxes of cakes kept at Porton Down in the culture collection were finally destroyed in 1972 when the BTWC was signed. The account states that, though some research on offensive aspects continued after the Second World War, work on an offensive capability had been abandoned by 1957.

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