Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security by Robert Armstrong, Mark Drapeau, Cheryl Loeb, James Valdes
By Robert Armstrong, Mark Drapeau, Cheryl Loeb, James Valdes
Ever for the reason that guy took to the battlefield, biology has performed an important role—both by accident and intentionally—in clash. ahead of the invention of the germ thought of disorder, such a lot wrestle deaths have been the results of infections. or even sooner than that figuring out, biology used to be utilized in an offensive function. An early instance was once the Tatars’ hurling of plague sufferers’ our bodies over the wall of the Crimean urban of Kaffa in 1346, which most likely helped unfold the Black loss of life. regardless of numerous treaties and protocols, offensive organic guns use has endured to at the present time, with the anthrax assaults of 2001 being the latest incident. Such job has ended in a powerful shielding application, with scientific technological know-how constructing a number of countermeasures that experience benefited either civilian and armed forces populations. yet that's the “old” organic battle. Covert courses for the advance of novel guns will enhance; likewise, the improvement of countermeasures also will proceed. the current quantity, in spite of the fact that, doesn't deal with those concerns. really, it studies and analyzes present learn and sure destiny advancements within the lifestyles sciences and the way they're going to considerably impact the organic fabric to be had to warfighters—not as guns platforms, yet as augmentation to presently on hand apparatus. this can be the “new” face of organic battle. The editors of this quantity have assembled specialists in learn, warfighting, and protection coverage to explain organic purposes from the smallest to the most important scale. moreover, they express how pondering in organic phrases can enhance our procurement cycle and improve our improvement time and prices. eventually, no description of biotechnology will be entire with out a attention of moral and felony matters relating to such examine and improvement. This edited e-book is a crucial contribution to the literature and well captures a couple of ongoing army simple technology examine initiatives with long term implications for the dep. of safeguard. It doesn't purport to be an exhaustive accounting, however it is a superb advent for policymakers to garner an figuring out of the place biology goes to slot into 21st-century readiness and preparedness for our struggling with strength.
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Extra info for Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security
They can take several forms including bacteria, or small, single-celled organisms; viruses, or organisms requiring living cells in which to replicate; rickettsia, or microorganisms with characteristics similar to both bacteria and viruses; and toxins, or poisonous chemical substances produced by living things. Examples of traditional biological weapons that fall into these categories include the bacteria anthrax, brucellosis, and plague; the smallpox virus as well as viruses that produce dengue fever or hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg; and rickettsia such as Q fever or Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
G. Howe, “Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics Since 9/11,” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13, no. 2 (2003), 175–188. J. R. Jones, “The Individual’s Versus the Organization’s Doctor? Value Conflict in Psychiatric Aeromedical Evacuation,” Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 52, no. 11 (1981), 704–706. S. Department of Defense, Emergency War Surgery, 1st rev. ed. (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 1975). E. Beam, “Medical Ethics on the Battlefield: The Crucible of Military Medical Ethics,” in Military Medical Ethics, vol.
29 The courts determined that such measures were permissible because there was a need to give absolute priority to saving the maximum number of soldiers’ lives and to support the military’s mission. It held specifically that under the circumstances then existing, soldiers could be vaccinated to protect them from chemical and biological agents even against their will because of the belief that Iraq would use weapons of mass destruction against American forces. After the war, it was discovered that Iraq did indeed have chemical and biological weapons and the delivery apparatuses, such as missiles, for them.