Autecology: Organisms, Interactions and Environmental by Gimme H. Walter, Rob Hengeveld
By Gimme H. Walter, Rob Hengeveld
This e-book spells out the theoretical constitution, method and philosophy of the technological know-how of autecology. The autecological procedure specializes in the interactions of person organisms (and their species-specific diversifications) with the spatio-temporal dynamics in their atmosphere as a foundation for studying styles of range and abundance in average platforms. This organism-based method of ecological interpretation offers a powerful substitute to extra conventional methods and relates mechanistically to the underlying disciplines of anatomy, body structure, and behavior. Read more...
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Extra resources for Autecology: Organisms, Interactions and Environmental Dynamics
The specific relationship of these Australian psyllids with mature leaves was unanticipated, for psyllids generally feed on flushing growth. Early experience with laboratory rearing indicated what the insects required (White 1993), although field observations might also have revealed these general needs. These expectations can be tested. If observation does not accord with expectation, other factors can readily be considered with reference to expectation. A further strength of the autecological approach to studying psyllids is that the results obtained can be extrapolated to other 18 Autecology—Organisms, Interactions and Environmental Dynamics localities, as testable predictions for example, and they can be generalized at more than one level – that of the psyllid-eucalypt system and also to the level of general autecological models, as covered later (Chapters 7 and 10).
In other words, population densities are demographic attributes that represent by-products (or effects, sensu Williams (1966)) of the individual-environment interaction rather than driving forces that dictate numbers in the following generation, as assumed in demographic interpretations. Of course, extreme densities could feed back on survival and reproductive rates, but this is likely to be sporadic, so their influence is secondary to the primary influences mentioned above. Once the underlying, autecological basis of such a system is understood, the secondary influences of these demographic variables can be tackled.
That other labellate flies do not do the same suggests adult tephritids feed in a different way from them. In addition, experiments have indicated that Bactrocera flies are attracted to the volatiles produced by leaf-surface bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) and feed on them to the extent that sexual maturation is supported, at least in experiments (Drew et al. 1983, Drew and Lloyd 1987). 36 Autecology—Organisms, Interactions and Environmental Dynamics A microscopic analysis of Bactrocera mouthparts returned surprising results in that “sponge” (Oldroyd 1964, p.