Atoms, Electrons and the Periodic Table (1997)(en)(36s) by Lower S. K.

By Lower S. K.

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Periodic trends in ion formation Chemical reactions are based largely on the interactions between the most loosely bound electrons in atoms, so it is not surprising that the tendency of an atom to gain or lose electrons is one of its fundamental chemical properties. Ionization energy This term always refers to the formation of positive ions. In order to remove an electron from an atom, work must be done to overcome the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the nucleus; this work is called the ionization energy of the atom and corresponds to the reaction M(g) → M+(g) + e– An atom has as many ionization energies as it has electrons.

Elements with low electronegativities (the metallic elements) are said to be electropositive. It is important to understand that electronegativities are properties of atoms that are chemically bound to each other; there is no way of measuring the electronegativity of an isolated atom. Moreover, the same atom can exhibit different electronegativities in different chemical environments, so the “electronegativity of an element” is only a general guide to its chemical behavior rather than an exact specification of its behavior in a particular compound.

The effect of increasing nuclear charge on the radius is clearly seen. Figure 10 8+ 9+ 10+ 11+ 12+ O2– F– Ne Na+ Mg2+ Relative radii of members of an isoelectronic series. Periodic trends in ion formation Chemical reactions are based largely on the interactions between the most loosely bound electrons in atoms, so it is not surprising that the tendency of an atom to gain or lose electrons is one of its fundamental chemical properties. Ionization energy This term always refers to the formation of positive ions.

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