Animal Behavior: Mechanism, Development, Function, and by Chris Barnard
By Chris Barnard
Animal behaviour has been one of many fastest-growing medical disciplines of modern years. Its influence at the manner we expect approximately biology has spawned lucid 'best sellers' just like the egocentric Gene and common clinical and public debate approximately our view of the wildlife and our position in it. This booklet presents a entire creation to the learn of behaviour, from its foundation within the animal's anatomy and body structure to its adaptive price within the atmosphere. it really is geared toward undergraduate scholars within the organic sciences and psychology and is designed to function either an in depth advent and an in depth, up to date resource of reference allowing scholars to pursue subject matters within the fundamental literature.
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Extra resources for Animal Behavior: Mechanism, Development, Function, and Evolution
Sometimes these are directed at an ear, sometimes a shoulder, but wherever they are directed the movements have a clear beginning and end and are distinctively different from other kinds of movement involving the legs. So distinctive are they, in fact, that we conﬁdently give the whole sequence a label, ‘scratching’, to sum up its apparent function. ‘Scratching’ can then be distinguished from other units of behaviour such as ‘walking’ and ‘cocking’ which also involve characteristic movements of the leg but serve different functions (locomotion and urine marking respectively).
These kinds of distinction become extremely important, as we shall see later, when we consider the nature of internal mechanisms responsible for behaviour. Some examples make them clearer. 1 n What is behaviour? 1 (a) Diagram of the nesting burrow of a great golden digger wasp (Sphex ichneumoneus); (b) when burrows are artiﬁcially lengthened by placing blocks on top of the entrance, wasps reduce their excavation accordingly. After Brockmann (1980). Locomotion in woodlice A nice example of goal-achieving behaviour comes from Fraenkel & Gunn’s (1961) classic study of locomotion in woodlice (Porcellio scaber) (see also Benhamou & Bovet 1989).
A study by Hughes et al. (1989) suggests not. Hughes et al. presented hens with three different types of nest: (a) a ﬂat litter surface, (b) a pre-formed hollow nest and (c) a pre-formed nest with an egg. If a fully formed nest was the goal of building activity we should expect hens to show less building with nest types (b) and (c) than with nest type (a) because the job is essentially done in the ﬁrst two cases. Somewhat surprisingly, however, Hughes et al. found that the amount of nest-building by hens was in fact greater with nest types (b) and (c), with hens taking longer to reach the egg-laying stage after entering the nest area (Fig.