Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.--A.D. 1000: encyclopedia of the by Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree

By Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree

This distinctive encyclopedia is the 1st to discover the various peoples of early eu civilization. seen as ''barbarian'' during the lens of historical Greece and Rome, those civilizations have been chargeable for such accomplishments because the upward thrust of farming within the Neolithic period and the development of Stonehenge. assurance extends from prehistoric origins during the early center a long time (8000 B.C. to A.D. one thousand) whilst tribal routine helped outline the tip of historical tradition and the increase of the fashionable eu global. organize topically and chronologically Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000 beneficial properties comprise two hundred illustrations (including the black & white photos, colour photographs, and line drawings); 70 maps; a chronology; index; eight-page colour inserts; cartographic endpapers; thesaurus of key archaeological phrases and extra. (20040701)

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5–2 million tons of ore produced. METALS ANALYSIS AND PROVENANCE A large body of metals analysis exists for prehistoric Europe; the Stuttgart program of spectrographic A N C I E N T E U R O P E S I G N I F I C A N C E O F B R O N Z E analysis, for example, effected some 22,000 analyses. Many of the sampled artifacts date to the Copper and Early Bronze Age, as it was thought that compositional analysis would be particularly useful in shedding light on the emergence of metallurgy in Europe. Statistical analyses of these data have thrown up metal composition groups, although these are contested.

Animal bone, horn, and antler, found in large numbers in the refuse pits of Feudvar, were worked into tools and ornaments, often decorated with intricate designs of concentric circles and meanders. Similar designs are found on contemporaneous Middle Bronze Age metal shafthole axes and swords. While some archaeologists see Mycenaean influence in such motifs, they may equally well have been developed locally. These were by no means urban societies. Middle Bronze Age settlements like Feudvar, Zidovar, or Dupljaja in the Yugoslav Banat region or the Otomani settlement of Salacea in the Transylvania region of Romania were the largest population centers of their time, possibly numbering a hundred or more people.

Presents a confusing picture to the unwary archaeologist. Although over the years more publications have appeared in English, German, and French, many basic site reports and syntheses are only fully available in Hungarian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Serbian, or other indigenous languages. Often the names of apparently identical archaeological cultures change with bewildering abandon as one crosses modern national borders or even moves between regions of the same country. This part of the world has a history (beginning in the mid-nineteenth century) of antiquarian collecting and detailed specialist typological studies, especially of ceramics and metal objects, with far less effort expended on the more mundane aspects of prehistoric life.

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