Anaerobic Biological Treatment Processes by Gould R.F. (ed.)

By Gould R.F. (ed.)

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0 are basic. Strongly basic substances are called bases. Below are some common solutions and their approximate pH values. BASIC 14 13 12 - Increasing Alkalinity 11 10 98- NEUTRAL Increasing Acidity ACIDIC Household Ammonia Sea Water 7- Human Blood Distilled Water 6- Tea 5- Coffee 4- 2- Orange Juice Vinegar Lemon Juice 1- Battery Acid 3- 0- Normal Range of Stream Water Water Chemistry & Microbiology 31 Acids and bases can be dangerous to humans and the water environment. They cause irritations and burning and can be extremely toxic to aquatic organisms.

Density is a measure of the weight of a certain volume of a substance. For instance, a gallon of water weighs about eight pounds. The temperature of water helps determine its density. Cold water is denser, and therefore heavier, than warm water. This relationship is responsible for seasonal changes in water quality in some lakes. In the fall, the water on the surface of a lake cools and becomes denser than the water below, causing the surface water to sink. The warmer, lighter water on the bottom of the lake responds by rising to the surface, causing an overturn of the lake.

McCartey, 1978. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering, Third Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York. 3. Sources of Water Pollution Weber River, Utah What causes water pollution? This question has many answers. Humans and the various activities we participate in cause water pollution, as do forest fires, floods and other natural events. A catastrophe such as the wreck of an oil tanker can pollute our waters, but so can a less dramatic event like a failing septic system. 46 Sources of Water Pollution 47 Some of the most common causes of water pollution include stormwater runoff, domestic discharges, industrial discharges, accidental spills, and use of water control structures such as dams.

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