Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen by Michael Frank Hordeski
By Michael Frank Hordeski
Revised and up-to-date, Alternative Fuels addresses a few of the components affecting our power use, together with the provision and desirability of varied fuels—especially using hydrogen. This re-creation covers new hydrogen advancements in know-how, oil provides and new drilling thoughts, most modern info on hydrogen road initiatives, breakthroughs in gasoline cellphone know-how and extremely low emissions in transportation, the most recent facts on rising oil markets, strength reserves, and carbon dioxide raises.
Also integrated is fabric on strength coverage, gas offer developments, substitute situations, strength usage, sustainable strength, price research, gas escalation, power and improvement, regulatory matters, boundaries to implementation, conversion platforms, garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gasoline chain potency, life-cycle potency, expertise concerns extracting, refining, air emission concerns, defense, usual gasoline hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming and gasoline cells.
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Additional info for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen
Some petroleums have a gasoline odor, and those with sulphur or nitrogen have a sour smell. Table 2-5 lists some important crude oil characteristics. The Oil Economy 39 Table 2-5. Crude Oil Characteristics ———————————————————————————————— Cloud point—temperature where solid paraffin waxes settle out Pour point—lowest temperature where oil is fluid Flash point—temperature where vapors will flash ignite Burning point—temperature where oil will burn with a steady flame ———————————————————————————————— The flash-and-burn points are key to the hazards involved in storing and handling the oil.
The light gases such as methane and ethane are used as fuels in the refineries, and they may be burnt as waste products if not saleable. Propane and butane are denser. They are first scrubbed and then liquefied under pressure and stored in tanks. Butylene, produced in various refining processes, is the raw material used in the synthesis of rubber. Motor fuels are an important product. Gasoline is required for spark-ignition engines. The different needs of aircraft and vehicles are 48 Alternative Fuels—The Future of Hydrogen constrained by the different qualities of the fuels produced in the refineries.
Many plants convert natural gas into electricity at high efficiency levels. TAR PRODUCTS Formerly, tar was derived from coal gas and used unprocessed for tarring roads. It was found that tar contained a large number of useful products, and a new industry emerged. The tar is distilled at a constant pressure in tube stills, where the distilled product passes into fractionating columns. These are divided into a series of chambers, or vats, where the rising vapors successively deposit their components in order of increasing volatility.