A World History of Tax Rebellions: An Encyclopedia of Tax by David F. Burg
By David F. Burg
An international heritage of Tax Rebellions is an exhaustive reference resource for over 4,300 years of riots, rebellions, protests, and battle brought on via abusive taxation and tax gathering platforms around the globe. all the chronologically prepared entries makes a speciality of a selected ancient occasion, interpreting its roots, and socio-economic context.
Read Online or Download A World History of Tax Rebellions: An Encyclopedia of Tax Rebels, Revolts, and Riots from Antiquity to the Present PDF
Best encyclopedias books
This two-volume set presents an intensive assurance of the fundamentals of genetics from old, medical and social concerns views. This revised variation provides greater than 60 new evaluate essays and 26 new sidebars to the unique entries, reflecting the fast advancements during this department of technology.
The Encyclopedia offers a close and accomplished account of the topic often called public selection. in spite of the fact that, the identify wouldn't show sufficiently the breadth of the Encyclopedia’s contents which might be summarized larger because the fruitful interchange of economics, political technological know-how and ethical philosophy at the foundation of a picture of guy as a purposive and dependable actor who pursues his personal ambitions as successfully as attainable.
Throughout the improvement of a legitimate and trustworthy tool, this publication units out to review the function that interpreters play within the quite a few settings the place they paintings, i. e. the courts, the hospitals, enterprise conferences, foreign meetings, and colleges. It provides interpreters’ perceptions and ideology approximately their paintings in addition to statements in their behaviors approximately their perform.
Historical past, sociology, anthropology and public coverage mix to convey the encyclopedia that has develop into the normal reference paintings in American rural stories. From irrigation and marriage to video games and psychological wellbeing and fitness, this encyclopedia is the main complete source exploring either the heritage of rural the US, its present matters and views, and visions for its destiny.
- Cyclopedia of Philosophy
- New Insights Into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility: Media for All 2
- Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine
- Encyclopedia of Ecology and Environmental Management
- The third citizen : Shakespeare's theater and the early modern House of Commons
Extra resources for A World History of Tax Rebellions: An Encyclopedia of Tax Rebels, Revolts, and Riots from Antiquity to the Present
During the ninth and tenth centuries. Islamic governments in the Near East maintained the circulation of money by arbitrarily imposing fines on the wealthy, and it was by means of this expedient that the governments collected money greatly needed for their own expenditures. The caliphal government was especially given to this means of raising funds because of its continuous deficits. Consequently, levying fines—known as al-musadara—became a permanent system in the Islamic states. Through the confiscations of the al-musadara system, large quantities of money in the coffers of wealthy men were returned to circulation.
The flight from the land had two significant effects for the Empire: declines in agricultural production and shortfalls in revenues from land taxes. Flight also had major impact on the Roman magisterial class, according to Susan Raven. Since senators were exempt from taxes, the burden of collection fell upon the middle classes, which provided the magistrates, a class known as the curiales, for the cities. Being a member of the curiales had been considered an honor for which citizens happily paid entrance fees and annual fees, but as early as the second century AD the curiales’ status had become both an obligation and a burden.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. Cho-yun Hsu, Han Agriculture, ed. Dull. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1980. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602, vol. 2. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964. Susan Raven, Rome in Africa, new ed. London and New York: Longman, 1984. Tax Farming, a system of tax collection common in antiquity that frequently resulted in excessive levies by the collecting agent. Tax farming was widespread as an alternative to creating a government agency or bureaucracy with the responsibility for collecting taxes.