A Student's Introduction to English Grammar by Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum

By Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum

This groundbreaking undergraduate textbook on sleek general English grammar is the 1st to be according to the innovative advances of the authors' past paintings, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002). The textual content is meant for college students in faculties or universities who've very little earlier heritage in grammar, and presupposes no linguistics. It includes routines, and should offer a foundation for introductions to grammar and classes at the constitution of English, not just in linguistics departments but in addition in English language and literature departments and faculties of schooling.

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They walk home. plain form gerund-participle past participle walk walking walked She should walk home. She is walking home. She has walked home. Inflectional form vs shape We explain below the various grammatical terms used to classify and label the inflectional forms. But first we must note that walked and walk each appear twice in the paradigm. To cater for this we need to draw a distinction between an inflectional form and its shape. By shape we mean spelling or pronunciation: spelling if we're talking about writ­ ten English, pronunciation if we're talking about spoken English.

She had dared to contradict him. There is no auxiliary counterpart to [iiib], for two reasons. In the first place, dared is a past participle whereas modal auxiliaries have only primary forms. Secondly, this is not a non-affirmative context. 4 The general concept of auxiliary verb The grammatical properties outlined in § 3 . 1 serve to distinguish auxil­ iary verbs from lexical verbs in English. There are many languages, however, that have auxiliary verbs, so we need to shift focus at this stage and consider what is meant by auxiliary verb as a general term.

Flown in [5iib] is the head of a subordinate clause modifying the noun route, which makes it functionally similar to an adjective, such as unpopular in A [very unpopular] route is bound to be expensive. There is, however, nothing adjective-like about the use ofjlown in the perfect [i] , or indeed in the central passive construction [iia] . The 'past' component of the name, on the other hand, derives from its use in the perfect construction. The perfect is a kind of past tense, and in [5i] , for example, the flying is located in past time.

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