A Minimalist Approach to Scrambling: Evidence from Persian by Simin Karimi

By Simin Karimi

This learn addresses the issues scrambling langauges offer for the prevailing syntactic theories via reading the interplay of semantic and discourse sensible elements with syntactic houses of observe order during this form of languages, and by means of discussing the results of this interplay for common Grammar. 3 interrelated targets are conscientiously during this paintings. the 1st is to investigate the syntactic constitution of Persian, a language which shows unfastened be aware order. With this research, the writer has accounted for the relative order of classified expressions, the inducement for his or her attainable rearrangements, and the grammatical result of these reorderings. during this admire, a extensive variety of significant syntactic phenomena, together with item shift, Case, prolonged Projection precept (EPP), binding, and scope interpretation of quantifiers, interrogative words, adverbial words, and detrimental parts are tested. This monograph is the 1st significant theoretical paintings ever released on Persian, and as a result fills the prevailing hole via supplying perception into the syntactic constitution of this language. the second one target is to attach those insights to comparable linguistic houses in languages during which scrambling happens (e.g. German, Dutch, Hindi, Russian, jap, and Korean), and to supply a deeper knowing of this staff of genetically different, yet typologically comparable languages. the ultimate and central aim is to situate the result of this paintings in the framework of the Minimalist software (MP). The investigations during this learn point out that scrambling isn't an not obligatory rule, and that definite rules of MP, akin to the minimum hyperlink , are just likely violated in those languages. in addition, it's proven that cautious research of scrambling with admire to binding and scope kin, and a reanalysis of the homes of A and A' pursuits, forged a few doubts at the relevance of a typology of circulation in typical language.

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43) Minimal Link Condition (MLC) K attracts α only if there is no β, β closer to K than α such that K attracts β. (Chomsky 1995: 311) Theoretical assumptions 23 Where ‘close’ and ‘c-command’ are defined as in (44i) and (44ii), respectively. (44) (i) β is closer to the target K than α if β c-commands α. (ii) X c-commands Y if a. every Z that dominates X dominates Y, and b. X and Y are disconnected. If, for example, X in (45) contains the feature F, and both WP and ZP contain the feature F’, MLC allows Agree between X and WP, but not X and ZP.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 31 Ez = Ezafe particle. Ezafe construction is a DP consisting of the head (an element with the feature [+N] such as N or A), its modifier(s), an optional possessor DP, and the Ezafe particle e that is structurally utilized as a link between the head and its modifier. For different analyses of Ezafe Constructions see Samiian (1983, 1994), Karimi and Brame (1986), and Ghomeshi (1996, 1997a) Studies by traditional grammarians have considered Modern Persian a verb final language (Foroughi (1944), Boyle 1966; Khanlari 1976; Vazinpour 1977; Lazard 1992).

The wh-feature, for example, triggers movement in English and German, but not in Persian. Therefore, this feature is considered to be strong in English and German, and weak in Persian. However, as we saw in section 3, Persian wh-phrases may undergo scrambling, representing contrastive focus. Thus, languages differ in their choice and association of features. These differences are captured in a more unified fashion in the most recent version of MP: movement is triggered only when a specific feature (EPP) is chosen from the lexicon, eliminating the strong/weak distinction (Chomsky 2000) (see specifically the discussion in chapters 3 and 4).

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