101 helpful hints for IELTS by G. Adams, T. Peck, H. Piotrowski

By G. Adams, T. Peck, H. Piotrowski

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ANOVAs are also called F tests because the p values from the ANOVAs are derived from theoretical F distributions. Like the t tests discussed in the previous section, ANOVA also compares population means. Unlike a t test, which compares only two means, the ANOVA compares two or more than two means. In situations where only two means are involved, the p value obtained from the ANOVA is exactly the same as that from a t test. In one-way ANOVA, only one independent variable is involved. Factorial ANOVA deals with the effects of two or more than two independent variables and their interactive effects on the dependent variable.

Most pedagogical research relies on the concept of attention to explain its effects. Another important ID, the sex of the learner, is also worthy of further consideration. A new view of the role of sex is proposed that links hormonal differences with changes in brain structure and specific types of memory (see Bowden, Sanz and Stafford, chapter 4; and Ullman, chapter 5). A further ID, previous language experience (bilingualism) makes for experienced language learners and leads to improved acquisition of subsequent languages.

In situations where only two means are involved, the p value obtained from the ANOVA is exactly the same as that from a t test. In one-way ANOVA, only one independent variable is involved. Factorial ANOVA deals with the effects of two or more than two independent variables and their interactive effects on the dependent variable. Factorial ANOVA 36 theory and methodology with two independent variables is called a two-way ANOVA. SLA researchers often use repeated-measures ANOVA to compare pre-, post- and delayed test scores obtained from different groups.

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